MongoDB - 18 May 2023
Pros and Cons of MongoDB in Web Development
Databases are available in plenty, and choosing the right one for your organization is a challenging task. In this blog, we will specifically focus on MongoDB and its pros and cons for web development.
We will also see how MongoDB performs in comparison with MySQL, which is its major competitor. So, let’s get started!
What is MongoDB?
For the uninitiated, MongoDB is a Database management system that is open-source and free. It is based on NoSQL and is very useful while working with large sets of data.
MongoDB can be used for storage, load balancing, complex data structure descriptions, and data integration.
MongoDB provides users with a server to create databases, which store records made up of collections and documents.
The fundamental unit of data in MongoDB is field and value pairs. The basic difference between MongoDB and Relational Database Management System(RDBMS) is that it is not a relational database.
In this blog, we will specifically discuss the advantages and disadvantages of MongoDB in web development.
Use of MongoDB in Web Development
Web applications have been traditionally using relational databases primarily, but now more developers are leaning towards alternative options like NoSQL.
MongoDB, which is based on NoSQL, allows the development of scalable and data-driven web apps. It is designed for high-speed read & write.
MongoDB has a scale-out architecture which is easy to work with for developers. They can perform various functions like saving, updating, extracting, and managing data with ease.
You can retrieve documents in JSON format, which can be read by humans. This can also be used for storing complex data objects.
Pros of MongoDB NoSQL Database
MongoDB has been built in such a way that developers find it very convenient to work with it.
This database management system constantly gets updated with new features, and excellent tech support is available for its customers.
All you need to do is click a few times on the web UI, and you can begin coding and creating clusters. The on-premise MongoDB database can also be migrated to the cloud.
MongoDB is scalable and capable of handling traffic surges very smoothly. This basically means that processing is distributed across several computers. It supports huge volumes of read-and-write operations.
MongoDB uses sharding, which enables storing information clusters in one place. However, data itself is stored on several computer clusters.
This is exactly the opposite of relational databases, which scales up by adding powerful computers.
MongoDB allows objects to be embedded within one another via data modeling. Updation can be done through a single transaction.
Several database transactions can be combined in one batch, which is either rejected or carried out.
MongoDB is meant for fast development because you can change anything almost instantly. The developer does not have to bother about the document’s strict format.
MongoDB provides fast development, and there is no need for schema synchronization. There are straightforward predetermined solutions.
Cons of MongoDB
Nothing is perfect in this world, and although MongoDB has obvious pros, it also has some cons. Let’s have a look at them.
MongoDB has unnecessary usage of memory as it stores key names for all value pairs. There is no functionality of joins which causes data redundancy.
No support for Joins
Unlike relational databases, there is no support for joins. It can only be added manually by coding. However, this may slow down the execution.
Limitation on Nesting
Documents cannot be nested above the 100 level.
Limitation on Data Size
Document size cannot be more than 16MB.
MongoDB has a write limit, which determines how fast you can write to the database. Writes are recorded on the master, which is limited by that particular master node’s capacity.
MongoDB does not have user authentication enabled by default. Hackers are known to target unsecured MongoDB databases.
MongoDB has an automatic failover strategy which means that if the master malfunctions, another node will become a new master.
However, the catch is that it will take up to 60 seconds for this to happen. There are NoSQL databases, which have several master nodes. If one goes down, another is always on standby.
Comparison of MongoDB & MySQL
MongoDB has Nexus architecture which can offer high scalability, flexible schema, and global availability. It includes drivers for AWS, Kubernetes, and Azure, programming languages like Python and Django framework.
MySQL has client-server architecture with storage optimized for high performance. Its documentation has a performance optimization technique making use of configuration rather than changing SQL measurements.
The query language used is MongoDB Query Language (MQL), which is expressive. It allows CRUD functions like create, update and delete. There are also options for text search, geospatial queries, and data aggregation.
MySQL uses SQL and can bring data from tables using the join functionality. This is what makes it a relational database. SQL has options for Data definition, Data Transaction, Data Manipulation, and Data Control.
MongoDB offers flexible permissions which are role-based for users as well as for devices.
This prevents access to unauthorized persons and prevents cyber attacks. It also supports TLS, which stands for Transport Layer Security, and SSL, which is Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
MySQL has privilege-based access and also supports encryption like MongoDB. It allows granting privileges to users to access data sets and operations.
Recently, MySQL has added dual passwords to increase security. It is also considered more secure as compared to MongoDB due to its schema and rigid architecture.
The database should offer good performance as well as speed to be considered good. As MongoDB has a document-based approach, it is faster than MySQL. It has JSON-like object storage, and this improves its performance.
MySQL can slow down while dealing with huge volumes of data. In case you need to alter data or extract, a large number of tables need to be accessed. This increases server loads and reduces performance.
Schema is also hard to design for unstructured data in the case of MySQL for complex data.
In the case of MongoDB, the BASE model ensures that data is available by creating replicas across various nodes. There is no immediate consistency of Data values, although BASE model can enforce it.
MySQL, on the other hand, goes by ACID model to ensure consistency. ACID stands for the following attributes:
Atomic: Each transaction is either completely halted or carried out properly.
Consistent: Transactions never affect the structural integrity of the database.
Isolated: No transaction affects any other transaction.
Durable: Even if there is an outage, data related to the transaction can still be found.
As this ensures high security and no failed transactions, financial service firms prefer this model.
The Bottom Line…
As we have seen, MongoDB has its pros and cons, and its suitable for use in some cases and not in others. MySQL is a good alternative in case MongoDB is not a fit for your requirement.
MongoDB is becoming popular due to its flexibility and scalability features. In case you want to develop a web application, you can get in touch with us at Nirvana Canada. Our experienced team will be happy to help you out.